Flute Archive

IDSerial NumberMakerStampManufacture DatePitchImage (click to see full text)
966No serial number.Karl MendlerEngraved on barrel: Karl Mendler /in / München. Additionally engraved on headjoint: Hans Fehr.Made 1888 to 1893, when the firm moved to Starnberg, and possibly as late as 1901, when production ceased and the name sold to Leibl (Langwill, Ventzke).This flute appears to be pitched at A=435-440.966
957Shepherd and Sutton / Rod CameronOn headjoint: (unicorn) / SHEPHERD / & SUTTON / LONDON / (small letters) PATENT. On all other joints: SHEPHERD / & SUTTONMade between 1829-1846 (Langwill)Although the tuning does beg for dexterity, the pitches are all close to A=440 with the head out a perfect 6 mm.957
938Godfroy and Lot, att. (Lotfroy)No markings on flute.Made in the late summer or fall of 1847; the third of three known unmarked French flutes from these crucial early days of the cylinder flute.This flute plays best at A=452.938
962Richard PotterFull stamp on barrel joint with slide out: 4/5/6/POTTER/Johnson's Court/Fleet Street/LONDON. All other joints marked POTTER / LONDON. Cork stopper marked 4,5,6, from the top.Made c.1795-c.1800. The patent for this model was filed in 1785, and the change of the footjoint keys to a side-by-side shank arrangement seems to have been done in the mid-1790's. Richard Potter retired in 1800, his 40 year old son William Henry very successfully assuming the business. Richard died at the age of 80 in 1806.The number 4 setting gives a pitch of A=425, surprisingly well in tune all the way down to low C (not counting the open, and flat, C#s). All the way in at #6 the highest I can get the footjoint is at A=435, yet the rest of the flute seems to be playing at A=440. I feel that the best pitch is probably A=430, but others may differ. Potter, incidentally, gives instructions that the flutes with long foots need the cork action to be reversed, in spite of the numbers on the cork screw. Thus the more the head is pulled out, the further out one wants the cork set. This does seem to help. Charlie Delaney's trick of pulling out the joints just a tad to compensate for the compression of time also helps.962
9537585Rudall Carte & Co., LtdOn upper body: (crown) / RUDALL / CARTE & Co Ltd / 23 BERNERS STREET / OXFORD STREET / LONDON / 7585Made by Fred Handke June 27, 1932, per Carte record books (ledger info via Robert Bigio at www.bigio.com).Pitched at c.A=440, which was probably actually A=439, the lowest of three pitches offered by Rudall Carte.953
940Martin Gordon(in circle) MG / MARTIN / GORDON / 14K.Made c. 2001.940
9503452A. BonnevilleEngraved on head and body: (monogram) AB/ATE/BONNEVILLE/(Gothic)Paris/ (additionally on body) 3452Probably made c. 1910 assuming 100 flutes per year production.Plays at A=440.950
922J. PfaffOn upper body: (curved) J (?) PFAFF / (straight) PHILAProbably made c. 1860.Seems pitched at A=448; plays at A=440 when out about 11 mm.922
923George W. HaynesEngraved on tenon (script) G. W. Haynes / Los Angeles Cal. Both headjoints unmarked.Made 1897-1905 (Berdahl). This is the earliest known concert flute made in Los Angeles.Seems to be pitched around A=438-440.923
930751Clair Godfroy aineStamped on head and body: (head of Medusa) / (in oval cartouche) CLAIR / (script) Godfroy aine / A PARIS / (monogram) CG. Additionally on headjoint: 751This professionally-played 1832 system ring keyed flute was made c. 1847, assuming 73 of this model per year since 1837 (the average if #950 was made c. 1850, as we assume.) The footjoint and key clutches show no influence from the cylinder flutes.This flute was made at A=448, and plays very nicely with the tuning rings to a tad below A=440.930
932Serial #3036Rudall and RoseStamped on midjoint: RUDALL & ROSE / No. 15 PIAZZA / COVENT GARDEN / LONDON / 3036. On barrel, heart, and foot: RUDALL & ROSE / LONDON.Made 1838-1847, per address (Langwill).This is a bit longer than many Rudalls, so it is probably high pitch but playable at A=440 when extended about 1 cm.932
934Claude LaurentEngraved on headjoint socket: (caps) C. LAURENT A PARIS 1822 / (script) BreveteMade 1822, per date on flute. This instrument is flute #82 in our inventory of 122 known or rumored crystal flutes. This instrument carries ID # L1822.81Pitch seems to be A=438-441 with slide compressed. Individual playing dramatically affects the pitch of these flutes.934
931No serial number.John ClintonEngraved on barrel: (heraldic belt inscribed PRIZE MEDAL EQUISONANT) / (within the belt-formed cartouche) CLINTON & CO / Sole Patentees / 35 Percy Str. / LONDON. / W . Head and foot unmarked.Made c. 1862-1864. This model was invented in 1862, and Clinton died in 1864. Current research on John Clinton is greatly aided by the late Karl Ventzke's introduction to the reprint of Clinton's "Code of Instructions" (ed. Rien de Reed), by the enthusiastic reporting and research of The Clinton Flute project (Andra Bohnet, Adrian Duncan, and Terry McGee, at http://www.mcgee-flutes.com/clinton.html, and www.clintonfluteproject.com), and via the always useful web site of Rick Wilson at http://www.oldflutes.com/articles/equis.htm.This flute seems pitched at A=452.931
9294134Louis LotEngraved on headjoint: L.L / LOUIS LOT / PARIS/ 4134 / BREVET� engraved on head; L.L / LOUIS LOT / PARIS / BREVET�, engraved on body. No mark on foot.Made in 1886 under Debonneetbeau. This was made just the year before one of the surviving record books, and does not appear in the later books.Appears to be pitched a bit high, although not fully old pitch. Plays around A=442 today, and A=440 when pulled out a reasonable 6 mm.929
925180V. Q. PowellOn head and upper body: (triangle with VQP) / VERNE Q. POWELL / BOSTON. Additionally on body: 180.The Powell bible lists this flute made July 9, 1932 for M. Shapiro. This was Powell's sixth year in business.This flute is pitched at A=440.925
9217388Louis LotEngraved on headjoint: L.L / LOUIS LOT / PARIS/ 7388 / BREVET� engraved on head; L.L / LOUIS LOT / PARIS / BREVET�, engraved on body. No mark on foot.Tulla Giannini gives 1905, and Ernest Chambille as the new proprietor, for this flute. The original records are lost, and this instrument does not show up in the existing repair records from the 1920's.Pitched to play at A=440, if not A=442921
920Wylde, from Rudall & Rose (left handed)On midjoint: (Royal Arms) / WYLDE / FROM / RUDALL & ROSE / 25 VILLIERS ST. / STRAND / LONDON; the same without arms on the foot. The head and heart are marked: WYLDE / LONDON.Wylde was at this address between 1838 and 1852 (Langwill).920
919GuichardOn all joints except barrel: (Italic, in oval cartouche) Guichard / � Paris.Probably made after c. 1840, as the crab mark suggests, and possibly as late as the 1872 registration of a very similar maker's-hallmark.919
9124884Louis LotEngraved on headjoint and body: L. L / LOUIS LOT / PARIS / (on headjoint only) 4884 / BREVET�.Made May 10, 1890, under E. Barat. The original record exists, and shows that this flute was made for Max Dessauer 121 St John St., New Haven Conn., and shipped via Amsterdam. Mr. Dessauer also ordered a wooden flute at the same time.This flute is pitched at A=448, "Ancien diapason" to the French.912
9116388V. Q. PowellOn barrel: (triangle with VQP) / VERNE Q. POWELL / BOSTON / 6388. On headjoint: (triangle with VQP)Completed Nov. 4, 1982.Seems pitched at A=442.911
910Graves (piccolo)On headjoint: (eagle) / (curved) GRAVES & Co / WINCHESTER / N. H. / (space) D. On midjoint and footjoint: (curved) GRAVES & Co / WINCHESTER / N. H.Made 1830 to 1845, extrapolating from Langwill.Seems pitched at A=440.910
9083608BonnevilleOn head and upper body: (monogram AB) / Ate / BONNEVILLE / (gothic) Paris. Additionally on body the number: 3608Made around 1912, we suspect, assuming a steady output of 100 flutes per year.This flute was made to be played higher than A=435, yet is certainly not a high pitched flute. With the head out a few millimeters it plays very well at A=440.908
9092V. Q. PowellOn all three joints: (triangle with VQP) / VERNE Q. POWELL (Note: no period after Q on body joint) / BOSTON / (on body only) 2.Made in 1926, per VQP. Powell had left the Wm. S. Haynes Company and set up his own little shop at 25 Huntington Ave. by July 19, 1926 (per letter from Wm. S. Haynes to Dayton C. Miller, quoted in Susan Berdahl's extraordinary dissertation, and the source of much of the history mentioned here). Apparently working alone, and with only a small lathe and polisher, he made ten flutes at this shop. In 1927, Powell incorporated his business, and sold shares reportedly worth $10,000.00 in order to finance a proper workshop. He moved to 295 Huntington Ave. and set up the shop that was to be Powell headquarters to 1970, when the business moved to Arlington. Although the Powell "Bible" begins with #1 in 1927, in fact the current flute, serial #2, would have been made in 1926 at the 25 Huntington Ave. address.This flute is pitched very nicely at A=440.909
9073792Louis LotOn headjoint: L. L. / LOUIS LOT// PARIS /3792/ BREVET�. On upper body: L. L (no second period) / LOUIS LOT/ PARIS / BREVET�. Footjoint unstamped.Made in 1884, the second year of Debonneetbeau's proprietorship.Plays today at A=440.907
885107SelmerOn barrel: Selmer / NEW YORK / 107 / Series 40. On head: Selmer. Footjoint unmarked. On rear of upper body: STERLING SILVERMade c. 1939, or after 1945 (Bob Davis, or Susan Berdahl). Selmer's alto flute production began in 1933, after the 1927 move to Elkhart, Ind. Although the flute carries the story of having been made 1939, Susan Berdahl writes that the Model 40 series was developed after 1945. The flute's story also includes the information that only around 25 of these altos were made.Plays at A=440.885
878Claude LaurentOn longer headjoint: (script) Laurent/ � Paris, / 1809. On shorter head: (script) Laurent / � Paris, 1809.Made in 1809, per date on flute and overlapping hallmarks. The keywork and head corks support this date, although the "zigzag" G# is generally associated with flutes from c.1815. It is possible either that we are wrong about the zigzag G#, or that this key was replaced after the fall of the Emperor.Pitches are available from A=415 to A=440.878
877GeislerOn headjoint: (8 pointed star) / GEISLER / AMSTERDAM / (8 pointed star)Geisler and his son worked in Amsterdam from 1840 to 1920 (Langwill). This stunningly beautiful flute is a curious flute to date via the mechanism. The footjoint is based on the old Godfroy 1832 system of the late '30's. The springs are flat steel, possibly a technique Geisler learned in Munich during his 1822-1825 job with Stiegler (Langwill). The G# is Dorus, yet the back clutch is bold, discrete and complete. Thus the flute is made after 1851 or so (the back clutch) but probably not after 1870, when the Dorus G# was well on the way out. The thumb key is the double hole Briccialdi type of Lot and Godfroy after 1849. The old style springs and footjoint, married with the up-to-date clutch system, in a flute almost entirely based on the Lot/Godfroy design, makes for a lovely and elegant flute with modern features for 1860 or so, yet a strong taste of a glorious past. Geisler Senior would have been 59 in 1869; his son 23. This flute is clearly the work of the father at the height of his career.The pitch seems around A=440-444.877
87549898Wm. S Haynes / Howell RobertsEngraved on barrel: (curved) THE HAYNES FLUTE / (STRAIGHT) MFD BY / WM. S. HAYNES CO. / BOSTON, MASS. /49898/ REG. TRADE MARK . On rear of barrel: (script) Deveau. Headjoint marked: (Large capital) R / Howel Roberts / Germany.Made 1993 or 1994. Nestor Torres used this flute on his Grammy nominated CD "Treasures of the Heart". The flute is illustrated on the CD jacket. The title track gives a great treat of tone, articulation, and flexibility, thanks to Nestor, and this flute. This CD can be heard at: http://www.rhapsody.com/nestor-torres/treasures-of-the-heart. Nestor can be seen and heard playing this flute at the Heineken Jazz fest in 2005: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jOvMx3d_cpYPitched at A=440.875
871591V. Q. PowellEngraved on all joints: (in triangle) VQP / VERNE Q. POWELL / BOSTON. Additionally on upper body: 591Made Dec. 15, 1944, per Powell record book.This flute appears to have been built to play at A=440-442. The scale, of course, more closely resembles Louis Lot than it does the modern Powell flutes.871
8703077Wm. S. HaynesOn body: THE HAYNES FLUTE / MFD. BY / WM. S. HAYNES / BOSTON, MASS. / U.S.A./ 3077. On headjoint and footjoint: (monogram) WSH.Made April, 1915 (Haynes).Pitched to play at A=440 and lower.870
8677816Louis LotOn headjoint, engraved: L.L / LOUIS LOT / PARIS / 7816 / BREVET� . Engraved (not stamped) on body: L.L / LOUIS LOT / PARIS / BREVET� . (No second period for L.L on either stamp).Made in 1908 (Giannini). The proprietor was E. Chambille.This flute plays very nicely at A=440. The scale is the typical Lot scale, and the headjoint does not appear to be cut (certainly not by 5 mm), suggesting that it was made with a slightly shorter headjoint tenon than usual.867
8687544??Louis LotEngraved on headjoint: L. L. / LOUIS LOT / PARIS / 7544 (??) / BREVET�, same on body less the number. Note: the first digit of the serial number has been purposely changed to a "1". The original number is not certain.I believe that this flute was probably made in 1906, during Chambille's second year of proprietorship.This flute has been used professionally for many years at A=440.868
8661393Clair Godfroy, ain�Stamped: (lion's head)/(in oval cartouche)Clair/Godfroy, ain�/A Paris(end of cartouche)/(monogram) "C" over "G", on head, body, and foot. Additionally on head and body, BREVET�. On headjoint alone the serial number "1393".Made c. 1855, assuming a steady output of about 75 of these flutes per year.Pitched A=435-440.866
860Serial #3161Powell, V. Q.Engraved on all three joints: (in triangle) VQP / VERNE Q. POWELL / BOSTON. Additionally on barrel: 3161Made Sept. 3, 1969 by Bickford Brannen at Powell's (Powell Bible).This flute appears to be made to play at A=440 with the headjoint out just a tad.860
85925050Haynes, Wm. S.Engraved on barrel: (curved) THE HAYNES FLUTE / (STRAIGHT) MFD BY / WM. S. HAYNES CO. / BOSTON, MASS. /25050 / REG. TRADE MARK Engraved on headjoint: (curved) REGISTERED/ (monogram) WSH / (reverse curve) / TRADEMARKMade c. 1955Pitched at A=440.859
858Serial #36100Haynes, Wm. S.Engraved on barrel: (curved) THE HAYNES FLUTE / (STRAIGHT) MFD BY / WM. S. HAYNES CO. / BOSTON, MASS /36100 / REG. TRADE MARK / HAROLD W. JETER Engraved on headjoint: (curved) REGISTERED/ (monogram) WSH / (reverse curve) / TRADEMARKMade August, 1967, according to the Haynes Company.Pitched at A=440. Classic scale.858
856Serial #3232.Hill-Late Monzani & Co.(crown)/HILL-LATE/MONZANI & Co./28 REGENT ST./PICCADILLY/LONDON/3232 /(space)PATENT on midjoint, (crown)MONZANI & Co. on all other jointsMade c.1836 (Hallmark).Pitched to play from about A=440 to almost A =448.856
8556434Louis LotEngraved on head and body: L. L. / LOUIS LOT / PARIS / BREVET�. Additionally on head, after Paris: 6434This exquisite plated flute was made at the very end of 1898, under Barat (date from Gianinni's numbers).Pitched at A=440, apparently originally.855
8541013Clair Godfroy, ain�On all joints, engraved: CLAIR / GODFROY, AIN� / (script) Brevet� (note: no accent on headjoint)/ (Gothic) Paris. Additionally on headjoint: 1013Made c. 1866 (Shorey).Pitched at A=440, thanks to the lowered headjoint ring. Originally scaled at A=446, I suspect, it would be perfect for European higher pitch playing.854
850Claude LaurentEngraved on headjoint socket: (script) Laurent / � Paris, 1815 ,The flute is dated 1815, which was a very prolific year for the Laurent shop. Actually, the keywork and the hallmark suggest that the flute was made a few years earlier, probably just prior to 1810 as the hallmarks suggest. We believe that the owner had to hide his Napoleonic allegiance, which would have been obvious simply by owning a Laurent from 1809, by changing the date to 1815. One other possibility could be that Laurent was so overwhelmed with orders in 1815, when his customer list swelled thanks to the influx of adoring English and Germans, that he had to reach into the drawer for keys.This fascinating flute is a finicky lover. She only accepts the air she wants, usually less than one expects. I found the long joint to come together the best at A=417 when pulled out about 3 mm. All the way in, it seems to play at A=425. This flute responds to one's mind. The short joint seems to play at A=438 all the way in, and down from there. This instrument responds so delicately to one's breath and intent, yet always with a full and wonderful tone, I suspect the actual original pitch is a mystery hidden deep within this flute, to be discovered only by a player with the exact, perhaps mystical, key. The search is definitely worthwhile.850
849Serial # 705Clair Godfroy, ain�Each joint is stamped: (Head of Medusa?)/ (in oval cartouche)CLAIR/ (SCRIPT) Godfroy ain�/ A PARIS/ (below cartouche) monogram CG. The head and body each follow with: BREVET�; the headjoint alone bears the number: 705.Made c. 1860, assuming 53 flutes per year. This date agrees with the key style and mechanism.Pitched at A=440 with the headjoint out 2 mm.849
848Serial #5364.Clair Godfroy, ain�Each joint is stamped: (Head of Medusa?)/ (in oval cartouche)CLAIR/ (SCRIPT) Godfroy ain�/ A PARIS/ (below cartouche) monogram CG. The three midjoints all have the monogram again next to the C key. Headjoint also with serial number: 5364.We estimate an extraordinary annual average of 303 simple-system flutes from 1818-1836. Thus this flute would have been made in 1835.The three joints appear to play at A=430, 440, and 448.848
843Serial # 2722Louis LotEngraved on headjoint: L.L / LOUIS LOT /PARIS / 2722 / BREVET� . Engraved (!) on body: L. L. / LOUIS-LOT (hint of hyphen) / PARIS / BREVET� . Footjoint unmarked.Made in 1879 (Giannini), under Villette.Although made to play at French pitch of A=435, the headjoint has been trimmed for A=440. Gary Schocker used it at this pitch, and felt the scale was perfect.843
842Serial #811Clair Godfroy, ain�Engraved on all joints: CLAIR/ GODFROY. AIN� / (script) Brevet� / (Gothic) Paris. Additionally on headjoint: 811.Made c. 1862 (per the flute #802 dated 1862 in Peter Spohr's collection).Built with the French scale of A=435, yet plays beautifully at A=440 thanks to the trimmed headjoint.842
841No serial number.Clair Godfroy, ain�Stamped on headjoint and upper body joint (footjoint unstamped): (head of Medusa) / (in oval cartouche)Clair/Godfroy, ain�/A Paris(end of cartouche)/(monogram) "C" over "G".Probably made c.1839-1845. This is one of the earliest design of Godfroy's, and was supplanted by the "tear drop" D# design before the advent of the 1847 footjoint.Pitch c. A=430, as far as I can tell.841
8363220A. BonnevilleOn headjoint and body: (Monogram) AB / ATE / BONNEVILLE / (Gothic) Paris . Additionally on body after "Paris" : 3220.Made c. 1908 (Shorey). Auguste Bonneville's business appears to have continued their numbering series even during the times that Bonneville's son was part of the business. They were especially well known for their plated flutes, such as this perfect example. The firm began in 1876. We estimate a production of 100 instruments per year. Number 3220 would therefore have been made roughly 32 years after 1876, or c.1908.Plays at A=440 quite easily.836
835Serial #4166.Louis LotOn headjoint: L.L / LOUIS LOT / PARIS/ 4166 / BREVET�. On body: L.L / LOUIS LOT / PARIS/ BREVET�. Note: no second period or hyphen.Made 1886 (Giannini), under Debonneetbeau de Coutelier. A lovely, "before lunch" Debonneetbeau, with excellent playing qualities.This was built as a low pitch flute (A=435) as were most of the Lot instruments. The instrument appears to be unaltered. The flute plays at A=440 as long as one wants to, and has great lips. A bit of inattention, and the pitch wanes a vibe or five. I like this flute best when pulled out a few mm, and played at A=435. Nonetheless, it has been used very happily at A=440 for several years.835
8313541Louis LotStamped on upper body: L. L. / LOUIS-LOT / PARIS / 3541 / BREVET� . Stamped on headjoint and footjoint: L.L / LOUIS LOT / PARIS .Made 1886 (Giannini). Five years after Boehm's death, someone ordered this Boehm-system French flute from Louis Lot. The open G# and reversed Bb of Boehm fit nicely onto this affordable French sweetheart. In spite of the long pitch, the keys are easy to play with small fingers.Pitched at A= 435.831
826Serial #5137Ate. BonnevilleEngraved on headjoint and body: (monogram) AB / ATE / BONNEVILLE / (gothic) Paris /. Additionally on body: 5137We guess 100 flutes per year from this shop, which opened in 1876 and dates this flute at 1927. This is a lovely example of the Bonneville solid silver flute. The tone is very rich. The articulation is precise, when the air is blown in the special Bonneville way (impossible to describe, but brings the flute to full life). The "sweet spot" on these flutes is different from the Lot instruments, and the tone actually has a richer texture than a Lot. The pitch is perfect at A=440-442, with the headjoint pulled out 1/2'. This is a lively, loud, and luscious flute.The body scale measures out close to the old A435 scale, yet the headjoint needs to be pulled out 1/2' to play at A=440, where the flute seems most comfortable.826
825A. G. BadgerUniquely engraved in script on the headjoint: A. G. Badger / New York.A tough date to pin down. This lovely flute could have been made from 1860-1880, I suppose.Pitched around A=440. This is definitely not a high pitch flute. The body scale is that of A=440, yet the headjoint is cut for A=440 at the highest. This is the lowest pitched Badger we have seen.
824No serial number.A. KauffmanStamped on all joints: A. KAUFFMANN/ LONDON.Made c. 1820?Seems pitched around A=440.
816No serial number.A. G. BadgerStamped on headjoint only: (lyre)/ A. G. BADGER/ NEW-YORK/ (lyre).This stamp is seen on Badger's 1832 system conical flutes, made in the 1840's and 1850's. It apparently was changed to "Badger & Co." after the Badger and Monzani partnership of 1858-1859. We know that Badger had cylindrical flutes to copy from the three great European makers after his friend Philip Ernst returned to New York after attending the Exhibition of 1851. Thus this instrument predates 1858, and probably postdates 1851. This flute is the earliest dateable American Cylindrical flute we have seen, contemporary with and possibly predating the famous silver flute now in the Mark Leone collection.Seems pitched at A=448.
778Serial #2404ATE BonnevilleOn upper body: (monogram) AB / (in oval cartouche) ATE / BONNEVILLE / � PARIS / (below cartouche) 2404. On headjoint the same, less the monogram.Once again, we date Bonneville flutes at approximately 75- 100 flutes per year, placing this instrument around 1901-1909.The piccolo seems to play at A=440, if not a tad higher.778
8376764Louis LotEngraved on headjoint and upper body: L. L / LOUIS LOT / PARIS / BREVET� . Additionally on headjoint between Paris and Brevet�: 6764 /This extraordinary and perfect presentation flute was made for "J. I " in 1900 (Giannini), under E. Barat, proprietor. It appears that the flute and the perfect case were little, if ever, used. The embouchure, at 9.9 x 11.7 mm is cut for the fantastic control and clarity of the original Louis Lot.The instrument was almost certainly made for the French pitch of A=435. The headjoint has been cut about 4 millimeters, bringing the useable pitch up to A=440.837
8288822Rudall Carte & Co LtdEngraved on barrel: (stylized crown) / (script) Rudall, Carte & Co Ltd / (script) London / 8822This lovely solid silver Alto flute is hallmarked for silver purity on the tube and the keys. The English hallmarks include a date, in this case the lower case "h", which is the date mark for 1963.Pitched at A=440.828
823Richard PotterOn headjoint: POTTER / JOHNSON'S COURT / FLEET STREET / LONDON. On all other joints: POTTER / LONDON. Additionally on footjoint: PATENT.This is Potter's famous and groundbreaking 6 keyed flute, with his 1785 patented pewter plug pad system. This instrument is a conservative one, since the buyer choose not to have the new metal-lined head. As well, the low C shank vaults over the C#, which Potter changed in the 1790's. Thus this flute was made within the 10 years from 1785-1795.Pitched at c. A=425-430.823
834No serial number.Clair Godfroy, ain�On headjoint and body joint (footjoint unstamped): (head of Minerva?) / (in oval cartouche) CLAIR/ (script) Godfroy ain�/ A PARIS/ (monogram below cartouche) CG/ BREVET�Made c. 1853? Dating this flute is a pleasure and a challenge. The flute and the original Palisander case are in immaculate condition, almost as new. There is no serial number. The Godfroy workshop, including Godfroy's partner Louis Lot during the first six and a half years of the cylinder flute, changed their design little, once it had been finalized very early on. The first three years saw tremendous change, as the 1832 vaulted clutch system was transformed to the sleek, simple, and elegant mechanism familiar to flutists today. The earliest numbered Godfroy flute we have had the honor of midwifing is #113, a wooden flute with C foot. Godfroy 113 is already set up with the complete modern mechanism, although the G# has been converted from Dorus to the side G#. The thumb key is the completed Bb mechanism we call the Briccialdi Bb, apparently invented in 1849. Thus #113 must have been made after 1849. After #113, every flute was made with a very similar mechanism. Only a few changes occurred with which we can date these flutes. Three specific design elements appear to have developed over the years. These are the shape of the backclutch, the shape of the footjoint clutch for C#, and the shaping of the open holed keys, including the width of the "Y" arm attachment. The backclutch was originally made with broad "hips", whereby the three overlapping spades extend further on the sides than the span of the upper parts require. The broad hips were also used on Louis Lot's early flutes. Godfroy flutes 356 and 572 were built with smaller hips on the back clutch. This flute here has the broad hips. By the 500 series the open hole keys had been rounded considerably on the top. The footjoint clutch on silver flute #657 is clearly advanced, as are the "Y" arms and the backclutch. The current flute appears to have been built between #113 and #357, certainly before #572, so we give it an estimated date of c.1853.Pitched c. A=444-A=440.834
833No serial number.Cahusac(curved)CAHUSAC/196 /STRAND/LONDON stamped on headjoint; CAHUSAC/LONDON on all other joints.Made c.1790? This address was used from at least 1780 to around 1810. The construction of the flute suggests it was made during the early, but not too early, days of the keyed flute in London.The pitch is c. A=433-440, with the tuning slide.833
832NononMarked on all joints: (treble clef) / NONON / PARIS. Additionally, very faintly remaining on the headjoint above the treble clef: (curved) BREVET� (?).Tulou system. Made after Nonon's patent of 1854, to the end of the workshop c. 1867 (Langwill).This instrument was made at the typical A=448 French pitch of before 1859, when pitch was decreed to go from A=448 to A=435. After 1859, this A=448 was called "Ancienne Diapason", or "AD". This does not necessarily mean that the instrument was made before 1859, since many places outside of Paris continued to use the old pitch of A=448.832
822Serial #6432.Rudall Carte & Co, Ltd.STAMPED ON BODY: (crown/ RUDALL/ CARTE & CO LTD/ 23 BERNERS STREET/ OXFORD STREET/ LONDON/ 6432. On head and foot: (crown/ RUDALL/ CARTE & CO LTD/ LONDON.Made c. 1924 (Langwill)Seems pitched at around A=440.822
821Serial # 2846.Rudall Carte & Co.STAMPED ON BODY: (crown/ RUDALL/ CARTE & CO/ 23 BERNERS STREET/ OXFORD STREET/ LONDON/ 2846. On head and foot: (crown/ RUDALL/ CARTE & CO/ LONDON. Additional headjoint with barrel attachment stamped: (cyrillic) A. I. Eppler/ (monogram) AE/ A. I. Eppler/ FLUTEMAKER/ SEATTLE 1984/ No. 081Made c. 1897 (Langwill).Pitched perfectly at A=440, with both headjoints.821
820Serial #5650.Louis LotEngraved on headjoint: L. L / LOUIS LOT/ PARIS/ 5650/ BREVET�. Engraved on body: L. L / LOUIS LOT/ PARIS/ BREVET�.Made 1894 (Giannini). E. Barat, prop.This instrument does not appear to have been cut or altered, although there is a space of 2 or 3 millimeters in the case. The flute plays at about A=442 all the way in, and perfectly at A=440 when pulled out just a tad. The scale appears to be the standard Lot A=435 scale on the body, suggesting that the instrument was made to be played around A=440, yet with slightly lower pitches available.820
812Serial #5.McDougall, EwenStamped: (script)Ewen/McDougall/Ravensworth/(space)/5/(space)/22 Carat on headjoint; (script)Ewen/McDougall/Ravensworth/(space)/5 on body; (script)Ewen/McDougall/Ravensworth on foot. Additional 9 carat headjoint engraved: (script)Ewen/McDougall/Ravensworth/Made in 1985 as a special order for Sid Zeitlin.Pitched at A=442.812
8111125Louis LotStamped? on headjoint and upper body: L. L./ LOUIS-LOT/ PARIS/ 1125. Footjoint unstamped. Note: no Brevet� stamp.Made in 1867 (Giannini).Appears to play at A=440, in spite of measuring out to a scale of A=435.811
8103952Louis LotOn headjoint: L. L / LOUIS LOT/ PARIS/ 3952/ BREVET�/. On body: L. L./ LOUIS LOT/ PARIS/ BREVET� . Footjoint unmarked.Made in 1884 (Giannini).Appears to play right at A=440.810
8093340Louis LotOn headjoint: L. L. / LOUIS LOT / PARIS/ 3340 / BREVET�. On body: L. L. / LOUIS LOT / PARIS/ BREVET�. Foot unstamped.Made in 1882, the last year of Villette's proprietorship. (Giannini).Plays at A=440 perfectly, thanks to the adjusted headjoint tenon, and the original amazing quality of the instrument. The distance between the C# and E holes on the main body seems to be long enough for a scale of A=435.809
808657Clair Godfroy, Ain�Engraved on all joints: CLAIR/ GODFROY AIN�/ (script) Brevet�/ (gothic) Paris/657.Made c. 1859, per estimate of production at c.50 flutes a year, and flute #802 (in the Spohr collection) is dated 1862 (1862 is 14.5 years after July, 1847, giving an average of 55 flutes per year). The numbers on the few Godfroy cylindrical flutes we are currently aware of do not seem to resemble a rational curve when graphed out; we are still not satisfied with any available dating suggestions for these flutes, so our dates are only current guesses. For example, the next dated flute after 802 is #1503, in a case dated 1880; this averages out to 39 flutes per year from 1862-1880 (remember, the patent opened in 1862, so Godfroy and Lot were no longer the only licensed French makers). Certainly there is nothing experimental about this flute. The next earlier flute we know is number 600, which has an extraordinary, experimental side G#. The following flute, # 680, has a special trill mechanism (Tulla Giannini dated #680 at c.1852). The side G# was first used by Louis Lot in 1860. If this flute is indeed earlier, it ascribes to Godfroy the creation and perfection of the independent G#!Seems pitched c. A=440.808
8074676.Louis LotOn headjoint: L.L./ LOUIS LOT/ PARIS/ 4676/ BREVET�. On body, L.L./ LOUIS LOT/ PARIS/ ??/ BREVET�. Foot unstamped.Made March 2, 1889 (Louis Lot Record Books). Debonneetbeau de Coutelier retired May 10, at number 4728 (record books), so this was one of the last flutes under his ownership.This flute seems to me to play a tad below A=440. It was probably originally pitched at A=435. The body scale measures 22.7 cm, which is usually found on 435 flutes. The headjoint is cut already, and the ring is easily moved to bring the pitch up if necessary.807
806No serial number, as usual.Boehm & MendlerEngraved on barrel: Th: Boehm & Mendler/ in/ M�nchen./This flute is an entirely new model from the typical Boehm and Mendler flutes. It appears as though the market forces had finally convinced these gentlemen that a French model Boehm and Mendler was finally necessary. Throughout Theobald Boehm's published correspondence (provided by Ludwig Boehm), he is constantly responding to requests for flutes with the thumb keys and G# of Louis Lot. Boehm vastly preferred his own system, and was especially contemptuous of the ludicrously complicated Dorus G#. Even after Godfroy and Lot had successfully adapted the side G# to their mechanism, Boehm preferred to build his occasional closed G# as a single closed key, with no duplicate hole. Boehm, in 1877, described the famous "Macauley" flute (now in the D.C. Miller Collection) as "the last flute I shall ever make and the best I have ever made; it is the 'last child of my life' with which I hate to part." Nonetheless, he clearly continued to take part in the flutemaking business, as his correspondence shows. His published letters include flute business matters through to his last letter, dated Feb 16, 1879, in which he mentions, "I have now finished a new flute model, which is the best flute I ever had in my hands." It is possible that Boehm himself participated in the design of the "new model" flute illustrated here, the official "French model" Boehm flute.This flute appears to have been built to play at A=448, yet it has clearly been played at a lower pitch, probably close to A=440.806
774Serial #1584.Louis LotEngraved on headjoint: L. L. / LOUIS-LOT / PARIS / 1584. On body, possibly stamped: L. L. / LOUIS-LOT / PARIS / 1584. Footjoint unmarked.Made in 1871 (Giannini). Louis Lot was 64 this year, and very much active as the proprietor of the shop. He had largely finished his developmental work by this time, although he still maintained some of his cherished, but more expensive to build ideas.Originally pitched at New Pitch, or A=435-438. Has been used professionally at a higher pitch. Currently set up for A=440.774
805No serial number.Boehm & MendlerEngraved on barrel: Th. Boehm & Mendler/ in/ M�nchen. No other part marked.Probably made fairly late in the career of Carl Mendler Sr. The workmanship is exquisite, as only a master could do, yet some of the more outr� design features, which required extra work, have been softened. Shall we guess c.1875-1888?Pitched at A=448, but playable quite a bit lower. A previous owner used it at A=440, judging by marks on the headjoint.805
804281Louis LotOn headjoint only: L. L. / LOUIS-LOT/ PARIS/ 281/ BREVET�Made for Petiton of Paris (possibly for delivery to Ledoussal � Brest ) May 15, 1858. (Louis Lot record book).We have graphed the tone hole placement from this flute onto Boehm's schema. As far as I can tell (and I find the schema confusing), this flute was made at A=448, just as one might expect. The headjoint has been cut an extra 3 mm.804
796Serial #738.Wm. S. HaynesOn body: (curved) WM. S. HAYNES/ (line)/ BOSTON, MASS/ 738. On foot: (monogram) WSH. Headjoint unstamped.Made 1903, per Goodman. This is the third year after Haynes left J. C. Haynes Co to start his own business. Wm. S. Haynes serial numbers begin with #507, after he made 506 flutes for J. C. Haynes (no relation).Pitched at A=435 with the head pulled out. All the way in, it plays at A=440.796
776Serial #2509A. G. BadgerIn gold shield on barrel: (Gothic) A. G. Badger / (Script) Maker / New York. Additionally on upper body: (Gothic) J. Howard Foote. / SOLE AGENT / New York & Chicago. / 2509Made c. 1880-1892 (Simpson's dating of the stamp).I believe this flute was pitched at A=448. Some adjustment is available with the headjoint, but it seems to loose effect down south when the sound reaches the bottom of this very large bore flute.776
800Serial #1804Louis LotEngraved on headjoint: L.L./ LOUIS LOT/ PARIS/ 1804/ BREVET�. On body: L. L./ LOUIS-LOT/ PARIS/ 1804. Note headjoint name is without hyphen.Made in 1873, under Louis Lot himself.This flute was clearly made at French New pitch of A=435. The headjoint has been cut to allow higher pitches, certainly A=440, leaving the final determination of possible pitch up to the player.800
791Serial #1869, 1867Louis LotOn body and foot : L.L./ LOUIS-LOT/ PARIS/ 1867. On headjoint: L.L./ LOUIS-LOT/ PARIS/ 1869/ BREVET�. Lipplate engraved with initials "V.A."Made 1874, probably in January. Louis Lot himself was two years from retirement, and this extraordinary instrument must have been the talk of the shop as it was being made.Appears to play at A=440 with the headjoint all the way in. The flute was probably meant to play at French A=435, with the head out a tad.791
790Serial #5669Louis LotOn body and silver head: L.L./ LOUIS-LOT/ PARIS/ 5669/ BREVET�. On wooden head and footjoint: L.L./ LOUIS-LOT/ PARISProbably made c. 1910. This flute seems to have been made just when Chambille registered his new E#C hallmark.Seems to play at A=440.790
77322849Rudall Carte & Co. Ltd.Stamped on body: (crown)/ RUDALL/ CARTE & CO Ltd/ 23 BERNERS STREET/ OXFORD STREET/ LONDON/ 22849; on headjoint and footjoint: (crown)/ RUDALL/ CARTE & CO Ltd/ LONDONMade 1892 as #2284, rebuilt in 1939 (9 added). (Bigio).Made to play at A= 440-442, I believe.773
769F. BourOn all three joints: F. Bour/ (knight's head with 3-feathered helmet)/ PARISThis beautiful, early French flute could possibly have been made by Bour, who moved from Paris to Chicago around 1890 (Berdahl). It certainly was made in France, however, and bears many qualities of the very early cylindrical flutes, joined with much later innovations. This flute's clutches were first used around 1865. The one piece strap was abandoned at Lot's after 1876, but continued at the Godfroy, Bonneville, and Rive shops. The pinless footjoint with round D# was a favorite of Debonneetbeau, yet eschewed by Bonneville and Rive. Shall we suggest 1875-1885? These were the years when production of cylindrical flutes spread out from the original shops of Godfroy and Lot, and this strange combination of components was occurring, yet while flutemaking was still considered sculpture.Pitched nicely at A=440; probably even more nicely a tad lower, but all the way in the base is definitely 440.769
771Serial #356C. Rive(monogram) C over R/ C. Rive/Paris/356 on all joints. Box with monogram: GM.Made c. 1883, assuming a production of 50 flutes per year, and a starting year of 1877.This flute appears to play at A=440, or just a tad higher.771
762259J. C. HaynesOn upper body: (curved) BAY STATE/ (line with central circle)/ J. C. HAYNES & CO/ BOSTON, MASS./ U. S. A. / 259/ H. P. . On headjoint and footjoint: (curved) BAY STATE/ (monogram) JCH/ BOSTON. .Made 1894-1900. Probably c.1897.Pitched quite high.762
7703314Louis LotL.L./LOUIS LOT/PARIS/3314/BREVET� engraved on head; L.L./LOUIS LOT/PARIS/BREVET�, engraved on body. No mark on foot. Monogram "IP" engraved on headjoint (and gold-stamped on case).Made in 1882 during Villette's last year as proprietor.Seems to be pitched at A=437.770
759543Rudall Carte & Co., Ltd.Stamped on upper body: (crown) / RUDALL / CARTE & CO LTD / 23 BERNERS STREET / OXFORD STREET / LONDON / 543 / (upward curved script) (Radcliff's Model) Headjoint stamped: (crown) / RUDALL / CARTE & CO LTD / LONDONRadcliff 543: 17 April 1912. Thinned cocuswood down to B natural. Middle and foot in one. Made by Bull. Sold on 21 January 1913 to A.A. Bohm of Adelaide. (from Robert Bigio, who has just published THE book, available from Tony Bingham http://www.oldmusicalinstruments.co.uk)Although this flute was made to play at A=452, I believe, she seems to come more into herself the further out you pull the headjoint. I would say she plays best at around A=446. The headjoint seems to fall off before the tuning does.759
760KellerOn all joints: (fleur-de-lis)/ KELLER/ (upright arrow); additionally on heartpiece: */ A* STRASBOURG/ *Made c.1740-c.1765.The three joints are approximately pitched: A=407, 417, and A = 427. The short joint barely works; this flute was clearly built to play low. The pitches are a bit hard to determine, since the head cork wants to be very far out for the flute to pull together. Nonetheless, she plays very nicely indeed, especially with the middle and lower joints.760
768Boehm and MendlerStamped on upper tenon: BOEHM & MENDLER/M�NCHENThe Boehm and Mendler wooden flutes achieved perfection once Carl Mendler moved from foreman to partner, around 1860. This model served as the inspiration for the entire American flute industry until the Louis Lot model took over in the 1920's. By 1860 Boehm had been buying wooden tubes without keys from Louis Lot for several years. Interestingly, Lot never mentions Mendler in his record books.Seems pitched at around A=448-452.768
765742Louis LotOn headjoint: L. L./ LOUIS-LOT/ PARIS/ 742/ BREVET�. On upper body: L. L./ LOUIS-LOT/ PARIS/ 742. Footjoint unstamped.Made for Lauret of Marseille May 1, 1863.This flute was made at A=435; the head has been cut 3mm to make A=440 possible.765
772No serial number.S. KochStamped on all joints: (Hapsburg Eagle)/ S: KOCH/ WIEN.Made c. 1815-1825. This is an estimate based on the characteristics of the flute. The maker's mark was first used by Stephan Koch (1772-1828), who established the workshop c. 1807 (Langwill). Stephan was a master turner with citizen's rights by 1815. In 1820 he "sought privilege for newly invented flute" (Langwill), which may well have been the flute to low G which is illustrated in Georg. Bayr's Tutor of 1823. Stephan died in 1828 and was succeeded by his eldest son Franz (1794-1859). Franz in turn was succeeded by Stephan Jr. (1809-?). The last directory listing was 1866. This flute appears to be from the first period of the Koch workshop, when Stephan Sr. was proprietor; conceivably it could have been made shortly after Stephan's death in 1828, but this seems unlikely given the early keywork. Probably the short F key was changed by Franz early in the 1830's.Pitched at A=440 when pulled out c. 3 mm.772
7582054Louis LotOn headjoint and upper body: L.L./ LOUIS-LOT/ PARIS/ 2054/ BREVET�. Mark looks engraved on head and stamped on body. Footjoint unmarked.Made 1875 (Giannini), under Louis Lot.This flute was made to play at A=435, in our opinion.758
757Native American, possibly Andean Rollano??Probably 19th century, judging by the aging.757
756No serial number.A. G. BadgerHeadjoint engraved on gold oval, surrounded by exquisite silver engravings: (florid) A. G. Badger/ NEW YORK.Made 1868-c.1880 (Simpson) Mary-Jean Simpson suggests in her 1982 dissertation, "Alfred G. Badger 1815-1892", that this label was in use during these 12 years.Seems pitched quite high, at around A=457.756
7557690Rudall Carte & Co. Ltd.On upper body: (crown)/ RUDALL/ CARTE & CO LTD/ 23 BERNERS STREET/ OXFORD STREET/ LONDON/ 7690. On wooden headjoint: (crown)/ RUDALL/ CARTE & CO LTD/ LONDON. Silver headjoint unstamped.Made 1934, by Fred Handke (Bigio/Carte Records).Pitched at A=440.755
754Louis Lot (SML)Made c. 1960?.
753Serial #1Rudall & RoseOn headjoint and footjoint: (quatrefoil)/ (curved) RUDALL & ROSE/ LONDON/ (quatrefoil). On body: (quatrefoil)/ (curved) RUDALL & ROSE/ (fairly straight) NO 1 TAVISTOCK STREET/ COVENT GARDEN/ (curved) LONDON/ (quatrefoil)/ 1Made in 1843. The circumstances under which this flute was built are famous. From Richard Carte's "Sketch of the Successive Improvements made in The Flute", 1851 (2nd edition 1855): "It was not, however, until the year 1843 that it [the Boehm flute] attracted much notice in this country. Its auspicious introduction into the French capital, and successful progress in France, induced Messrs. Rudall and Rose to examine its merits, and to consider how far it might be acceptable to the taste of the English flute player. This examination proving satisfactory, so far as concerned tone and intonation, the two greatest essentials of a good instrument, they determined upon commencing the manufacture of it, in the year I have mentioned. And in order to do this most efficiently at once, they invited to this country the partner of M. Boehm, M. Greve, from Munich, to instruct the workmen, and superintend its production." (1855 ed. p.19). Richard Carte, a prominent London fluteplayer, helped Rudall and Rose, the preeminent English flutemakers, to decide to make a flute based on Boehm's new system. They brought over to London the most famous maker of these flutes, namely Boehm's own flutemaker, Rodol. Greve. Greve, to whom Boehm had sold the rights to Boehm's own name on flutes, worked for several months with Rose and Rudall, and this is the fruit of that work. As Rockstro,Welch, and Fitzgibbon all say, there was a flurry of newspaper activity surrounding the release of this flute. It is certainly possible that Richard Carte received this very flute. I suspect that further study in English periodicals might well unearth reference to this specific instrument. If this was Carte's flute, then it was probably Rockstro himself who changed the springs. This is the first Boehm system flute by one of the most revered flutemakers in the world, made with the help of Rodol Greve, the flutemaker first to bring Boehm's ideas to reality.Pitched c. A=442, with slide out about 1/4".753
752Serial number 88.Collard, A. & Co.(crown)/(script)COLLARD'S PATENT/(straight type, curved)A. COLLARD & Co./(reverse curve)LONDON/(straight type)No. 88Made 1882-1887, per dates in Langwill.Pitched c. a=454.752
751Clair Godfroy piccoloProbably made 1850-1860, during the very early years of the new system.751
750396C. Rive(monogram) CR/ C. RIVE/ PARIS/ 396 on head and body. (monogram) CR/ 396 on foot.Made c. 1883? Claude Rive established his own flutemaking business in 1877 (Langwill). He had been working in the flutemaking trade for Godfroy at least since 1869, we presume, since both he and A. Bonneville are listed as jewelers who owe the estate about F90 apiece (Giannini). Perhaps Godfroy was keeping track of how much of his wine they drank at lunch (Giannini). At any event, Both Bonneville and Rive opened up their own ateliers soon after Louis Lot retired in 1876. The patent had been open since 1862, we presume (15 years after 1847), yet few makers in Paris had taken up the challenge. These two, Bonneville and Rive, students of V. H. Godfroy (who died in 1868), remain the most famous and desirable flutemakers of the second generation after the original masters. We date this flute on the premise that Rive probably made around 50 flutes per year.Appears to be pitched at c.A=440.750
7491578A. BonnevilleEngraved on head and body: (monogram)AB/ BONNEVILLE/ (gothic) PARIS; additionally on body the number: 1578.Made c. 1890-1896, assuming 75-100 flutes per year. The case, which may well be original to the flute, is marked "9 rue Corbeau, Paris". Langwill suggests that the firm's address changed in 1896 to rue St. Sebastian.Seems pitched at A=438-440.749
7486002Louis LotEngraved on head and body: L. L. / LOUIS LOT/ PARIS/ BREVET�; additionally on headjoint the number: 6002Made 1896, under Barat (1889-1904) (Giannini).748
7442158A. BonnevilleEngraved on head and body: (monogram) AB/ATE/BONNEVILLE/(Gothic)Paris/ (additionally on body) 2158.Probably made 1896-1903, assuming 75-100 flutes per year.A=440, possibly a half a tad higher.744
746A. G. Badger & Co.Engraved on oval gold plaque on headjoint: A. G. BADGER & Co./NEW YORK. On gold shield on body (barrel): Ernst G. Schweppe.Made 1860-1868. This flute was made during a period of American elegance, probably just after the Civil War (very possibly during it). In spite of the barbarism of war, this flute showed that New York was still a city of the World. The stamp, "A.G. Badger & Co", is said by Dayton C. Miller to be listed in the New York registries between the years 1860-1868, only. Susan Berdahl, in her 1986 Dissertation, "The First Hundred Years of the Boehm Flute in the United States, 1845-1945" and Mary Jean Simpson in her 1982 dissertation , "Alfred G. Badger 1815-1892. 19th Century Flutemaker", both suggest that Badger stopped making the Dorus G# by 1867 or 1868. Oddly, two Ernst Schweppes seem to have been born in 1859, one in Ill. and one in Wisc. They were probably cousins, and the family came from Prussia (census records 1870, 1880, and 1890). The Illinois Ernst is listed as a Bookkeeper in 1880 and as an Attorney at Law in 1890. If Miller, Berdahl, and Simpson are correct in their facts and assumptions, this flute was made between 1860 and 1868. Since Ernst Schweppe was only nine years old in 1868, the gold escutcheon with his name beautifully engraved was probably a later addition.Pitch is an important question with Badger flutes. Almost all of his flutes were made at high pitch (A=446 and higher), making them useless in a modern group. Since the tenuous introduction of lower pitch in America around 1882 everyone has been complaining that they can't play their Badger flutes. Occasionally a Badger will come along at a lower pitch, and this appears to be one of them. Most of the notes seem to be at A=440!746
7436944Louis LotEngraved on headjoint: L. L./LOUIS LOT/PARIS/6944/BREVET�. On body: L. L./LOUIS LOT/PARIS/BREVET�. No mark on foot. Note: This engraving is clearly different than on earlier flutes. The letters are larger, there is a fanciness about the "S", and the letters are not perfectly lined up. The body engraving looks to have been done with the same hand, although more carefully.Made in 1902 (Giannini) under Barat, two years before he retired.Pitched at A=440.743
7405568Louis LotOn headjoint: L.L./LOUIS LOT/PARIS/5568/BREVET�. Same stamp on body, less number. Footjoint unstamped.Made in 1894 under Barat (Giannini).This flute was probably built to play at A=438 or so, but the headjoint has been cut and fitted to play at A=440.740
223EulerEULER/FRANKFURT/a/M stamped on all joints. Piccolo stamped: (crown)/(curved)H. F. MEYER/(curved)HANNOVER/C -stamped on ivory head only.August Anton Euler (1808-1873), the son of the founder of the Euler company (founded 1810), probably made this flute between c.1860-1873. The piccolo is from the original H. F. Meyer Company, founded in 1848 (Langwill).Pitched at A440. The piccolo plays at A=440.223